We have had a long-standing request to show your own deleted posts, which has been status-declined. However, a few concessions have been made to help users view their own deleted content:
- If you have a link to the post, you can see it even after deletion.
- There are links to show your posts that have been deleted in the last 90 days.
Once you reach the access to moderator tools privilege (2k on betas, 10k on graduated sites), you'll be able to see all deleted answers in situ. You'll also be able to view deleted questions if you have the link. One place to find such posts in the Recently Deleted section of the moderator tools.
I applaud your desire to salvage posts that need editing in order to be welcome on this site. Certainly if there are some great answers that just needed a bit in the way of fixing formatting or minor grammar, you'd be doing a great service. But the time to correct these problems is before deletion. When you notice great answers that has problems, use your edit privilege to fix them.
I should also note that I looked at a sample of recent deletions and I personally can't imagine how most of them could be fixed. There are a lot of answers that are literal copies of material found elsewhere. Removing them before this site aquires a reputation as a content farm is the best course of action. The onus is largely on the author of the post to provide original content in answers.