Since you asked, I have reviewed the questions you linked in light of my experience with similar questions on other religion oriented sites. Please not that although I've lived in the middle east for many years and have quite a bit of experience with Islam I am not really qualified to judge the answers. However I can comment on the format of questions -- and I believe questions should stand or fall on their own right independent of any answers.
Hi Caleb, I see you are the moderator of Christianity SE, could you please take a look at this question and let me know if you think some of them or most of them are valid questions formulated in clear ways but shut down due to its sensitivity? I ask you because you might be more objective when it comes to sensitivity issues. Do you observe the same happening on Christianity SE for example?
About those questions
I'll be blunt. Of the ten examples you point out, only one of them (the first one) is even close to being salvageable. None of the others are even remotely good questions.
In fact I would suggest that the fact that that genre of question (not subject matter, question style) is getting that kind of downvote and close action is a sign that your community might in fact be working as intended. The SE format is supposed to differentiate between quality posts and not so quality posts and in these cases the mechanism seems to be working.
Stack Exchange sites are oriented primarily for experts! They are supposed to be optimized for things that are interesting to ask and answer for people with real knowledge on the subject. Of course people with less expertise are invite to participate, but they are expected to put in some effort on their side to keep the standards high.
Asking good questions requires research. If you hover over the downvote arrow on questions you will see that the hint text for when to use it states:
This question does not show any research effort; it is unclear or not useful.
There are of course other reasons for downvoting as well, but it's safe to assume that is a major one. Most of the questions you link to show very little effort has been made to find an answer. They just pick a topic and spit off a question. Even the ones with a little bit more effort are setup in such a way that they are unlikely to be useful as long term reference guides for people with the same question.
The answers on SE sites are supposed to be good for long term reference with a certain encyclopedic quality about them. It is very difficult to answer sloppy and unclear questions with such answers when the first half of your answer has to sort out the basic scenario, correcting usage of terms, finding sources and other things that some basic research on the part of the asker could have done. Likewise questions that are based on a desire to discredit or confuse an issue are less likely to be useful in the long run that ones that are clearly attempting to learn something. All of these and more might be a factor in the downvoting of these questions.
Of the questions that are closed, most of them also exhibit other problems. Besides just the lack of research and poor structure, it is not clear in most of them what is being asked or who the question is addressed. They lack scope or clarity or both.
The majority of the questions you linked to are not closed, but several of them probably should be.
Lastly a note about the "not clear" close option. I have seen this reason objected to several times based on a misunderstanding of what it is. The basic objection usually reads, "But I understand exactly what is being asked, it must be clear." The problem is just because it's clear to you doesn't mean it's generally clear and that a broader audience is all going to come to the same conclusion about the issue. Often times these questions are "clear" to some people because they find them interesting or they relate to some pet-issue of theirs. There is a huge desire to jump in with their favorite explanation. The problem you would find in leaving these open is that they would continue to collect answers as each new person came along and saw something a little different in the question they would be forced to add a new answer that matched what they see in it. The definition of "clear" that you need to keep in mind when closing/editing/opening question is: is everybody coming to the same conclusion about what this question is about and how it should be answered. If no, then it might not be clear yet even if you think you get it.
About the purpose of moderation
Especially during the beta phase of a site, one of the roles that moderators play is in guiding the community by example into recognizing what patterns are useful and which are not. Before the community is going to be able to judge whether a question is ready for prime time or whether it needs to be put on hold pending some fix ups, they need to see the process done. The is one reason pro-tem moderators exist during the beta phase.
It looks like your community here is already downvoting things that it finds not to be useful. As long as it is also upvoting things it finds to be useful this is a good things. My suggestion would be that the community now needs to also take a cue from the moderators and start taking a more proactive role in VTC'ing questions that are not clear