My question here was closed for being too broad. The only way I can think of to narrow this down substantially would be to restrict it to a single school of aqidah and only use one of the three questions I put in boldface. I talked about this at length with Medi1Saif in chat (the conversation spans what you get by clicking the "next day" button twice), but that didn't really resolve the issue.
I think these questions point out an important problem in aqidah and would be a worthwhile addition to islam.se. How can I narrow the post down sufficiently to remain open? I'm happy making 9 questions for each combination of 3 schools of aqidah and each of the 3 boldfaced questions, if that's required. I can also frame the problem more concretely if necessary; while talking to Medi1Saif about the issues in chat, it turned out that the inconsistencies I (and many other Non-Muslims) see with these doctrines took some time to outline precisely enough for him to realize what I'm talking about.